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When you incorporate a direct quotation into a sentence, you must cite the source.
If a quote is 40 words or more, omit quotation marks and use a block format, indenting about .5 inches (5 spaces) from the left margin.
When you summarize or paraphrase in your own words, you still must cite the author. For example, a paraphrase of Gibaldi’s earlier quotation might be as follows:
Within the research paper, quotations will have more impact when used judiciously (Gibaldi, 2003).
Check out The Owl at Purdue for more tips on paraphrasing.
If two sources are written by authors with the same surname, include the first author's initials with the surname in every in-text reference.
When a work has 2 authors, cite both names in every reference.
When a work has 3-5 authors, cite all names in the first reference and thereafter, the surname of the first author followed by et al.
When a work has 6+ authors, use the surname of the first author followed by et al. every time the reference occurs in the text.
Electronic sources may not have page numbers. However, if the source indicates paragraph numbers, use the abbreviation “para” and the relevant number in the parentheses. If the paragraph number is not visible, cite the heading and the paragraph number following it.
As Myers (2000, para. 5) aptly phrased it…
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)
Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report. In this case, because you did not read the original report, you will include only the source you did consult in your References. The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research.
The references page is double-spaced. Each entry is formatted with a hanging indent (p.180).
Sources cited in text must appear in the references list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications and classical works; they are cited in text only and not included in the references list (p.174).
Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name, not the full name (p.184).
If the references list includes 2 or more entries by the same author(s), list them chronologically. (p. 182).
Reference entries appear in alphabetical order by surname of the first author or by title if there is no author (pp.181-183). Ignore the words A, An, and The when alphabetizing by title.
In titles of sources, capitalize only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns, except in parenthetical (in text) citations (p.185).
Italicize book titles, journal titles, and volume numbers. Do NOT italicize issue numbers.
If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is given for a source, include it in the reference (pp.188-192). A DOI is a unique number used to identify a source (typically journal articles). It is often found on the first page of an article.
When the references entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.
For a helpful list of abbreviations used in references (i.e. "Vol" for "Volumes"), see page 180 of the APA Manual.